Jospeh Carey Merrick: The Elephant Man
How Joseph Merrick may have looked without deformities
It's the 5th of August 1862. At number 50, Lee Street, in Leicester, Mary Jane Merrick is in
labour. Mary Jane has been married to brougham driver Joseph Rockley Merrick for a
year. She used to be a domestic servant, and has a physical disability of some sort. She is 28
The Lee Circle car park (built 1961) occupies the location of the Merrick house.
The proud parents are delighted with their fine baby boy, born healthy and crying lustily.
Named for his father, Joseph Carey Merrick is given his distinguished middle name by his
mother. A staunch baptist, she chooses to include the name 'Carey', from the name of
preacher William Carey.
Joseph began to change when he was 21 months old. Swellings developed on his lips. A bony
lump appeared on his forehead, and his skin began to roughen, becoming loose. His feet
became bigger and later, a size difference between his left and right arms became
noticeable. By the time he was five years old, Joseph's skin was noted as being, "… thick,
lumpy skin ...like that of an elephant, and almost the same colour."
The Merricks, unsurprisingly distressed, blamed the changes in Joseph on his mother's
having been frightened and knocked over by a fairground elephant during her pregnancy.
This notion, that the experiences of a pregnant woman could affect her unborn child
physically, was termed 'maternal impression.' It was popular in Britain at the time.
The Merricks went on to have two further children. William Arthur Merrick was born when
Joseph was four years old. When he reached four years of age, William succumbed to
scarlet fever and died. Marion Eliza Merrick was born when Joseph was aged five. Like her
mother, Marion had physical disabilities. She passed away aged 24.
Early engraving of Joseph Merrick
But Joseph Merrick lived on, firmly believing that his mother's experience with the
fairground elephant was the root of his problems. Mary Merrick became a Sunday School
teacher; she and Joseph were very close. Joseph Merrick, the father, found work driving
the engine at the local cotton factory, and also ran a business selling small items, such as
buttons, sewing cotton and ribbons.
Joseph Carey Merrick undeniably had problems but fate had worse in store.
Although his physical deformities troubled him, he managed to attend school. At one point,
he fell, injuring his left hip. The infection that set in did enough further damage to make
him permanently lame.
Joseph was eleven when his beloved mother died, claimed by bronchial pneumonia. His
father soon began cohabiting with a widow – Mrs. Emma Wood – and her children. Joseph
and his sister Mary were moved to the new household and Mrs. Wood became the second
Mrs. Merrick the next year, on the 3rd of December 1874.
Poor bereaved Joseph was mourning his mother. Soon he was missing his former home life.
His father and stepmother alike showed him no affection. As Joseph noted…
"I was taunted and sneered at so that I would not go home to my meals, and used to stay in
the streets with an hungry belly rather than return for anything to eat, what few half-meals I
did have, I was taunted with the remark—'That's more than you have earned.'"
Now his home life was, "A perfect misery.", Joseph tried to run away on several occasions.
Each time, his father brought him back Joseph left school at the age of 13 – not an unusual
leaving age in the 19th Century. He soon found employment, rolling cigars in a nearby
factory. Over the next three years, Joseph's right hand became still more deformed' so
much so that he could no longer do his job.
Unemployed, Joseph trudged the streets in search of work, while keeping out of range of his
stepmother's cruel taunting. He was naturally imposing a financial burden on the family –
something had to be done.
Joseph's father acquired a hawker's licence for him, and sent him out, selling stock from the
haberdashery shop. It was a plan doomed to fail from the outset. Housewives were repulsed
by Joseph's distorted face. They could scarcely understand his equally distorted speech.
Doors, which had opened for him, soon remained closed. Passers-by stared – some followed
him, overtly curious about this strange, misshapen man.
Try as he might, Joseph couldn't make enough money to keep himself. Matters came to a
head when Joseph was fifteen. Following a brutal beating from his father, he ran away from
home for the last time.
Perhaps some consolation lay in the fact that Joseph wasn't a street dweller in Leicester for
very long. His Uncle Charles, a barber, went looking for him, and offered him
accommodation. But every silver lining has a cloud. Joseph remained a hawker but for two
years, his appearance and poor speech also remained as obstacles to success. Ultimately,
complaints from the public led to Joseph's hawker's licence being revoked. Good Samaritan
Uncle Charles had young children of his own; he couldn't support his nephew as well. In
December 1879, 17-year-old Joseph became one of the 928 inmates of the Leicester Union
In this grim, austere institution, the inmates were classified by gender and age. Joseph
joined the other men aged between 16 and 60. A mere three months after arriving, Joseph
signed himself out of the workhouse. But the two days he spent seeking work brought no
opportunity…Joseph had only two choices, return to the workhouse, or starve.
He stayed for four years, his deformity worsening over time. The protuberance on his mouth
had grown. At between eight and nine inches in length, it was affecting his speech very badly
indeed, and making it difficult for him to eat. Much of this growth was removed at Leicester
Though in dire straits both physically and financially, Joseph could think rationally. A
frighteningly malformed caller at the door might well attract the morbidly curious. After all,
had inquisitive people not followed him? Joseph came to the conclusion that becoming an
exhibit in his own right was his ticket out of the forbidding confines of the workhouse.
Joseph wasn't daydreaming. He'd heard of Sam Torr, who was a popular comedian
in the music halls, who was sufficiently entrepreneurial to operate as a theatrical agent
too. A nletter that Joseph sent to Torr led to his visiting the workhouse. Wisely
deciding that Joseph should go on tour so his audiences were continually new, Torr
arranged introductions to a selection of manager agents, among whom were travelling
showman George Hitchcock, travelling fair owner Sam Roper and music hall owner J.
Ellis. And so, Joseph Merrick embarked on what seemed to be a ready-made career.
His backers came up with the name 'The Elephant Man'. Billed as 'Half a man and half
Early Playbill of Sam Torr
Elephant Man poster - no trades descriptions act in the 1880s
Joseph began touring in 1883. He was well received in the East Midlands, even in his
home town of Leicester..
The lights of London beckoned. George Hitchcock approached an acquaintance, Tom
Norman, a fellow showman who also exhibited human oddities in several 'penny gaff shops'
(a penny gaff was a short theatrical sketch) in East London. Norman agreed to take over the
management of Merrick so in November 1883, George Hitchcock took his new charge south
for the winter season.
Talk of the Town
When Joseph walked into the office, Tom Norman was appalled by his
appearance. He'd never before seen such deformities and was worried that
Joseph might be too frightening to be a successful exhibit. Once Norman had
got over the initial shock, he decided he would take Joseph on. Joseph first
went on show in an empty shop on the Whitechapel Road. Tom Norman
festooned the shop with posters with a drawing of half man/half elephant
creature. He came up with a pamphlet entitled 'The Autobiography of
Joseph Carey Merrick', which contained an account of Merrick's life. This
account was only mildly exaggerated. Who actually wrote it remains unclear
- it might have been a joint effort by Norman and Merrick.
Tom Norman acted as the show's 'barker', drawing crowds with his showman's
spiel. When a crowd had gathered, Norman would take his paying public into
the shop. "The Elephant Man was "not here to frighten you but to enlighten
you.", he'd declare loudly. Then he went into
"Ladies and gentlemen ... I wish to introduce Mr Joseph Merrick, the Elephant Man.
Before doing so I ask you please to prepare yourselves—Brace yourselves up to witness
one who is probably the most remarkable human being ever to draw the breath of life.
…before opening the curtain that concealed Joseph from his audience.
Showman enough to know all about shock value, Tom Norman let the audience stand close to
the curtain. When he whisked it back, some shuddered, some cried out and most were
evidently horror-struck. Norman would go on to describe how it was Merrick had come to be
so seriously malformed.
It'd be rewarding to report that the Elephant Man immediately became a sell-out attraction.
In reality, sales of the life-story pamphlet were what kept the show afloat initially. But it was
a living of sorts and Joseph began to set aside money from his share of the profits. His
dream was to someday have a home of his own.
The Whitechapel Road shop where Joseph was first exhibited.
Merrick meets his eventual saviour
Though it's easy to recount the slightly sordid glitz of the show, the man behind it warrants
closer attention. Yes, Joseph was a freak but he was also a human being too. He was also of
interest to the medical profession. Perhaps a kindlier quirk of fate meant that the exhibition
shop stood directly opposite the London Hospital. Among the young medics who went to see
Joseph was a house surgeon, Reginald Tuckett. Captivated by Joseph's bizarre appearance
and what might have caused it, Tuckett mentioned in to a senior colleague. This is how
Frederick Treves, who was to figure prominently in Joseph's life, came to know he existed.
Dr. Frederick Treves
Like many Londoners engaged in a trade, Joseph slept 'over the shop' in an iron bed with a
curtain for privacy. Seeing Joseph in bed one morning, Tom Norman noted that he slept in a
sitting position, with his knees drawn up and his head resting on them. The gross burden
imposed by his distended head meant that Joseph had to sleep like this. In attempting to
sleep in a prone position, Joseph would, as he himself said, "…risk waking up with a broken
Joseph's appearance naturally invited comment when he was out and about. Such comment
was inevitably cruel so in attempt to draw as little attention as possible. Joseph habitually
wore an outfit that concealed him from passers-by. This consisted of a large black cloak and
a brown cap with a hanging curtain that hid Joseph's face.
Medical Investigation Begins
Frederick Treves, having mulled over what his colleague had said, arranged to meet Joseph.
A private presentation was arranged for a time before the shop was opened in the morning.
The viewing lasted only 15 minutes and Treves's reminiscences, written in 1923, revealed
what he thought of Joseph on this first encounter…
[Merrick was] "the most disgusting specimen of humanity that I had ever seen ... at no time
had I met with such a degraded or perverted version of a human being as this lone figure
Treves returned to the hospital but before long, he sent Reginald Tuckett back to the shop,
to ask if Joseph would be willing to go to the hospital to be examined. Both Merrick and
Norman expressed agreement.
On the appointed day, Joseph put on his secretive outdoor clothing and took the cab Treves
had thoughtfully sent for him. Treves began to examine Joseph, noting that he was," Shy,
confused, not a little frightened and evidently much cowed." At this stage, Treves was
working in the belief that Merrick was an imbecile.
Image of Joseph naked, showing the extent of
Treves noted that Joseph's skin surface was strewn with warty growths (papillomata). The
tissue beneath the skin was fragile enough to allow the skin to be loose. In some areas, it
hung from the body. Both Joseph's legs and his right arm displayed skeletal abnormality.
Such abnormality was most obvious in the skull.
Picture of the back of Joseph's head.
The surgery on Joseph's lip hadn't been entirely successful, his speech could barely be
understood. Conversely, Joseph's left arm and hand were not deformed and his genitals
were normal. Deformities and damaged hip apart, Joseph was deemed to be in good health.
Treves went on to take some measurements. Joseph's right wrist measured 12 inches
(30cm) in circumference, one of the fingers on his right hand had a circumference of 5 inches
(13 cm). Joseph's head measured an astonishing maximum of 36 inches (91cm) around.
Tom Norman noted that Joseph went for examinations up to three times. Treves provided
Joseph with copies of the photographs he'd had taken – these were reproduced in the
autobiographical pamphlet. In early December, Treves lectured the Pathological Society of
London at Bloomsbury, with Joseph appearing.
Unsurprisingly, Joseph became weary of being examined by doctors, and of displayed as a
specimen. Tom Norman pointed out that Joseph had complained, saying, "[I was] stripped
naked, and felt like an animal in a cattle market.". The medical examinations and
Reversal of Fortune
At this time, the tide of Victorian public opinion was changing about shows like The
Elephant Man. They were increasingly seen as indecent and the crowds they attracted
caused a public nuisance. Soon, the police closed down Tom Norman's Whitechapel Road
shop. Joseph's backers in Leicester took him away from Norman.
In 1885, not long after his final medical examination, Joseph went touring again, this time
with Sam Roper's travelling fair. He became friendly with two fellow performers, 'Roper's
Midgets'. This double act consisted of Harry Bramley and Bertram Dooley. Though small in
stature, this pair sometimes defended Joseph when members of the public began to bother
Harry Bramley, boxing with a wallaby.
Before long, Sam Roper was becoming uneasy about putting Joseph on show. The
magistrates and the police acting for them were being far less tolerant of freak shows, and
one featuring The Elephant Man naturally attracted attention. Merrick's managers decided
to send Joseph on a tour of Europe, on the basis that both the foreign audiences and
authorities would be less enthusiastic about taking the show off the road.
Joseph's run of luck was soon to end. Financially, the show fared no better abroad and public
opinion was equally unsympathetic. Joseph's European manager took him to Brussels and
then struck. Joseph had saved £50 (now worth approximately £4,600). The unnamed
manager stole it and left Joseph abandoned in a city unknown to him. Joseph went to Ostend
by train but was refused passage in the Dover ferry. He was more fortunate in Antwerp,
where he booked passage aboard a ship bound for Harwich, on England's east coast.
Still alone, Joseph arrived at London's Liverpool Street station on the 24th of June 1886.
Ineligible to be given accommodation in a London workhouse for more than one night,
Joseph was nearly 100 miles from the workhouse in Leicester.
He tried asking strangers for help but his appearance and unintelligible speech worked
against him. A crowd gathered, taunting and confusing him with their remarks. A policemen
appeared and took Joseph to an unoccupied waiting room. Cold, scared, exhausted and
unable to communicate, Joseph was in trouble. Fortunately, Frederick Treves had given
Joseph his card. Taking this, the only identification he had, Joseph showed it to the police,
who called Treves.
At the station, Treves recognised Joseph and quickly put him in a hansom cab, instructing
the driver to go to The London Hospital. There, Joseph was diagnosed as suffering from
bronchitis. He was admitted to the hospital, bathed, fed and bedded down a small attic
Joseph Merrick was safe at last, and his hospitalisation ensured he remained safe and well
cared for. Over the following five months, his health improved. Treves had noted that the
Joseph's skin growths (papillomata) gave off a distasteful odour. The hospital's nurses,
some of whom had to steel themselves to even look at Joseph, bathed him regularly, which
largely solved the problem.
Frederick Treves could now spend more time on Joseph, and even began to better
understand his garbled speech. Treves could also conduct more searching examinations; the
results were not encouraging.
In fact, Joseph was by that time a cripple, his condition having worsened over the previous
two years. Treves had reason to believe that Joseph had also developed a heart problem,
and seemed unlikely to live longer than a few years at most.
A further problem had also arisen. This was a practical problem that needed a swift solution.
It had become clear that Joseph was incurable and The London Hospital had neither the
resources nor the staff to care for cases like his. The hospital committee chairman, Francis
Carr Gomm had agreed that Joseph should be allowed into the hospital but permanent
residency wasn't among the hospital's medium to long term procedure.
Francis Carr Gom, hospital committe chairman
Carr Gomm tried to find a placement for Joseph at an alternative institution, one with
facilities to accommodate a chronic case. This tactic failed. Carr Gomm then wrote to The
Times, describing Joseph's history and situation. He also asked readers for their
suggestions. The letter was printed in the newspaper and brought swift, and encouraging,
responses. Some wrote in with suggestions. These correspondents, and others, also sent
donations. Even the comparatively lofty British Medical Journal covered the story and its
Carr Gomm's letter, printed in The Times
This put Carr Gomm in a strong position. There were numerous donors, and their financial
support meant that Carr Gomm could suggest that Joseph Merrick should be allowed to
remain in the hospital. The committee, appreciating Carr Gomm's argument, decided that
Joseph could stay for the remainder of his natural life.
Joseph moved into two basement rooms, which had been altered to suit his needs. A
specially-made bed was provided and Treves was thoughtful enough to specify that neither
room had a mirror.
A Pleasant Outcome
Joseph now had a comfortable place to live, a friend who understood his speech, and
continuous care. Unsurprisingly, he blossomed, and Treves came to realise Joseph was no
imbecile. In fact, he proved to be an intelligent, sensitive, articulate man.
Treves went to a lot of trouble to help Joseph, perhaps even in trying to introduce some life
experiences that had passed Joseph by. Treves arranged for a meeting between Joseph and
Mrs. Leila Maturin, a "young, pretty widow" who was a family friend. Forewarned about
Joseph's looks, Mrs. Maturin smiled at him and shook his hand. Joseph was soon in tears –
women had always recoiled and moved away from him in the past. Nevertheless, the
innocent friendship continued, in meetings and correspondence. A letter, thanking Mrs.
Maturin for a book and two grouse she'd given him, survives today.
Joseph's letter to Mrs. Maturin
Treves took Joseph to look at his town house on Wimpole Street, where he met Mrs. Treves
and saw the inside of what he referred to as, "a real house". Joseph's experiences were
building up rapidly. He met members of London society, whose interest in him had been
awakened by Carr Gomm's letter. An actress, Madge Kendal, worked hard to boost
donations for Joseph and he became adept at making card models and woven baskets for his
benefactors, by way of thanks.
The Treves' Wimpole St. house
Card model of Mainz Catherdal, hand made by Joseph
He also had a burning desire to visit the theatre. Treves and Madge Kendal took him to the
Theatre Royal in Drury lane, to see the Christmas pantomime. Wisely concluded in the
private box of a generous aristocrat, Joseph was "awed and enthralled" by the performance,
as Treves later reported.
On a memorable occasion, Joseph Merrick met the prince and Princess of Wales, who
arrived to officially open a new building at the hospital. In Joseph's room, the Princess shook
his hand, and sat talking with him. She gave him a signed photograph, and wrote to him
regularly. Joseph was "overjoyed". He also enjoyed three holidays, being taken to the
station in a cab and having a railway carriage all to himself on each journey. He spent the
time walking in the woods of Fawsley Hall, Northamptonshire, collecting flowers and
meeting some of the locals.
Decline and demise
Joseph Merrick spent four years in the care of the London Hospital. During this time, his
condition progressed and his health declined steadily. The deformities on his face worsened
and his head grew larger still.
During this time, Joseph needed a great deal of care on a daily – and nightly – basis. Though
he would go walking, after dark, in the courtyard adjacent to his rooms, he spent more and
more time indoors, often in bed. He was seen to be progressively more lacking in energy as
time went by.
At three p.m. on the 11th of April 1890, Treves's house surgeon found Joseph lying
unmoving across the bed. He was dead.
Joseph Merrick had often expressed a wish. He wanted to sleep "like other people". At the
inquest, four days later, the official present was none other than Wynne Edwin Baxter, who
had conducted the inquests for Jack the Ripper's Whitechapel murders of 1888.
Frederick Treves said…
"He often said to me that he wished he could lie down to sleep like other people ... he must,
with some determination, have made the experiment ... Thus it came about that his death
was due to the desire that had dominated his life—the pathetic but hopeless desire to be
'like other people."
The cause of Merrick's death was asphyxiation caused by the weight of the head as he lay
down, and the death was ruled accidental. Treves's post-mortem examination found that
Joseph, in attempting to sleep in a recumbent position, had suffered dislocation of the neck.
He died at the age of 27.
The post-mortem cast Treves produced Casts of the hands and left leg
Joseph may have given Frederick Treves permission to use his remains for medical science,
but no one knows for certain whether this bequest was made. In any event, Treves made a
death mask, or rather a complete cast of Joseph's head, as well as casts of his arms and
legs. Treves went on to dissect the remains. He took numerous tissue samples, skin samples
among them, which were placed in jars with formaldehyde as a preservative. These samples
were later a casualty of the Blitz during World War 2.
Joseph's organs were taken from his body. After a memorial service arranged by the
hospital, these were buried, at an unrecorded location. The skeleton, however, was
re-assembled and mounted, and remained as part of the hospital's pathology collection. A
exhibit consisting of some of Joseph's possessions was produced but the skeleton was never
displayed to the public.
The Elephant Man's curious life begs a question: what afflicted him? This defies simple
explanation to this day.
At his second presentation of Joseph's case, in 1885, Treves had to rely on his photographic
record. Henry Radcliffe Crocker, an expert on skin diseases was present. Having seen and
heard the evidence, he suggested that Joseph my have suffered a triple whammy, as it were.
He diagnosed dermatolysis (disease causing the skin to loosen or atrophy of the skin),
pachydermatocele (neuroma attaining large size, producing a condition similar to
elephantiasis) and an unidentified bone deformity. Crocker said the cause of these was,
"Changes in the nervous system."
These remarkable images show the extent of the concretions on Joseph's skull
Twenty-four years later, Frederick Parkes Weber, a skin specialist, wrote about von
Recklinghausen's disease in the British Journal of Dermatology. This condition was first
described in 1882 by German pathologist Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen. Weber
suggested Joseph Merrick suffered from this genetic disorder. However, one symptom was
the presence of 'café au lait spots' – patches of light-brown discolouration on the skin.
Joseph didn't have any such pigmentation.
Shortly afterwards, medical terminology changed. Von Recklinghausen's became
Neurofibromatosis Type 1, as it is still called. It was generally accepted as the diagnosis for
Joseph's condition. But not every doctor agreed. Maffucci syndrome (a tendency to develop
other benign or malignant tumors) was put forward as an alternative, as was Albright's
disease (patchy skin pigmentation, and endocrine dysfunction).
It was not until 1986 that a congenital disorder called Proteus syndrome was put forward as
a diagnosis for Joseph. In the British Medical Journal, Michael Cohen and J.A.R. Tibbles
wrote that there having been no café au lait spots and lack of evidence of Neurofibromatosis
in Jospeh's microanatomy (histology) suggested that Proteus syndrome had indeed been the
Neurofibromatosis Type 1 affects the human nervous system, while Proteus syndrome , a
intermittent condition, affects different tissue types. In Joseph Merrick's case, Cohen and
* Thickened skin and subcutaneous tissues, especially in the hands and feet.
* Plantar hyperplasia (increased thickness of the soles of the feet).
* Lipomas (encapsulated tumors of adipose tissue, usually composed of mature fat cells).
* Unidentified subcutaneous masses.
* Hypertrophy of long bones (enlargement of overgrowth of the arm and leg bones).
* Macrocephaly (unusual enlargement of the head).
* Hyperostosis (unusual enlargement) of the skull.
Although the diagnosis seemed most appropriate, it was not beyond question. In 2001, Chartered
Biologist Paul Spiring suggested that Joseph may have had a combination of Proteus
syndrome and Neurofibromatosis Type 1.
During the following year, the BBC aired a broadcast seeking Joseph's ancestors on his
mother's side. Pat Selby, from Leicester, was found to be Joseph's uncle's granddaughter.
But familial line notwithstanding, samples of Pat's DNA offered no diagnostic information
In 2003, DNA samples were taken from both Joseph's hair and skeleton. Once again, the
tests proved inconclusive. Once more, nobody knew for certain what exactly had afflicted
Joseph. After about ten years, still more DNA testing has offered more support for the
Proteus syndrome theory.
Stranger than fiction
Over the years, the story of Joseph Carey Merrick attracted a great deal of attention,
from both the scientific community and the lay public. The story even appeared in The Fourth Pan
of Horror Stories (new impression August 1969).
From 1979 (when Cohen first identified Proteus syndrome) to 1982, a number of works,
including books and plays, emerged. The 1980 David Lynch film The Elephant Man, with
John Hurt in the title role, was arguably the most notable production.
In 1987, it was reported that Michael Jackson detected similarities between his own life and
that of Merrick. Apparently, Jackson saw The Elephant Man no fewer than 35 times; tears
flowed at every viewing. It as reputed that Michael Jackson offered the hospital a million
dollars for the Merrick skeleton. Out of respect, the hospital declined the offer. Six years
later, Michael Jackson told Oprah Winfrey that he hadn't made any offer to buy the nskeleton.
He said, "Where would I put some bones? And why would I want them?"
Another celebrity has been inspired by John Merrick. Johnny Depp made an appointment to
see the skeleton and Jospeh's effects . He was moved by a poem Joseph had penned…
Dragging this vile body round the years
I am not what first appears
A senseless freak
Devoid of hope or tears
And now, Johnny Depp has a life-size replica of the skeleton at his home.
21st Century Elephant
The story doesn't quite end here. It's conceivable that The Royal London Hospital may have
had a reason other than respect for not wishing to sell the skeleton. In 1987, it was 97 years
old, and in quite a fragile state. It is now 124 years old.
Recently, tradition and technology have worked together. Merrick's skeleton has been the
subject of many 3D scans, which have enabled the making of a full-size replica. This can be
viewed, along with Merrick's personal effects and other items accrued in his lifetime.
So ends the remarkable story of Joseph Carey Merrick, the Elephant Man. At a later stage
in his life, he adapted Isaac Watts' poem, 'False Greatness'. Joseph would use it under his
signature at the end of the letters he wrote.
While there is no signature here, it seems appropriate to let Joseph's words close this
'Tis true my form is something odd,
But blaming me is blaming God;
Could I create myself anew,
I would not fail in pleasing you.
If I could reach from pole to pole,
Or grasp the ocean with a span,
I would be measured by the soul;
The mind's the standard of the man.
The Royal London Hospital Museum
St. Philip's Church
London E1 2AA
Tel. 0207 377 7608
Closed public holidays and adjacent days, Christmas-New Year.
No admission charge, but donations welcomed.
Small shop selling postcards, greetings cards and publications.
Copyright Gatekeeper 2014